"Critically compare Maslow and Rogers accounts of the Self-Actualised/Fully Working Person with Positive Psychological Theories of the ‚Wise Person’."
Talk about the similarities and differences
Self actualisation identified by Larsen and buss as a "progress founded motive, a motive to build up, to flourish and be to become increasingly more what one is definitely destined to be". The humanistic domain of psychology focuses on the individual’s potential and stresses the value of progress and self-actualization. This essay will end up being compare two character theories of self actualization from Abraham Maslow s hierarchy of needs and Carl Rogers idea of the completely functioning person.
Self- actualization to maslow represents growth of an individual toward fulfilment of the best need. Maslow (1968) described it as ‚the process of becoming a lot more what one idiosyncratically can be, to be everything that one can be with easy tips on how to write a reaction paper the capacity of becoming’. Maslow suggested that each are not doing what they were made to do, they simply cannot feel completely fulfilled, subsequently making the average person feel unsettled about their future. Both Maslow and Rogers agrees that everyone is good and are able to self actualize.
Maslow was the first ever to research and initiate the region of the motive to self actualization. His theory stems around the idea of ‚need’ , maslow hierarchy displays a linear routine of growth and so are hierarchically organised. More basic needs are found at the bottom of the pyramid and the personal actualization need reaches the top. The bottom of the pyramid is normally the most crucial of the hierarchy in conditions of survival of a person compared to the higher level needs (figure 1) to get to the top underneath must all be pleased. Maslow’s hierarchy is referred to as follows:
- At the bottom of the pyramid are the psychological (or basic) necessities of a individual: breathing, food, water, sleep, sex. Another level is safety necessities: security, order and steadiness. Both of these levels are highly important for the essential survival of the average person. Once this is all accomplished they can attempt more.
- The third degree of need is take pleasure in and belonging : after the individual has looked after themselves they will be ready to discuss themselves to others such as having as having family and friends. The fourth level is esteem- that is achieved when individuals feel safe using what they have achieved, Maslow (1968) believed persons needed gratify two types; esteem from others and self esteem; individuals wants to be recognised by others as successful and also acknowledgement of their achievements and abilities. When people gain this esteem from others it is translated into self-confidence; sees themselves as being good and valuable.
- The the surface of the hierarchy may be the self- actualization need. This is where the individual be aware of who they are or what they want to be and have hardly any doubts when coming up with decisions about their direction of existence. It’s circumstances of harmony and understanding because their full potential has been achieved. Maslow recognized these kind of individuals who have peak experiences and are highly creative.
Maslow (1968) claimed that lower degrees of wants within the hierarchy pyramid must be satisfied earliest before satisfying the bigger ones. This is as the lower level desires are better and urgent to accomplish due to its relevancy of survival. The needs are arranged specially in order to show that an individual must his have sufficient food and feel secure before attempting to acquire esteem. Maslow (1968) advised that the hierarchy was designed to reflect the average specific, it emerges during individual development -satisfying the lower needs early in life and gradually as the individual develops these needs, then the higher desires will fall into place and turns into satisfied. Maslow (1968) likewise theorized that people who attempted to go straight to higher needs their motivation will be fragile and quickly disrupted. ‚This inner tendency toward self actualization is not strong and overpowering and unmistakable just like the instincts of animals. It is weak and fragile and subtle and quickly overcome by habit, cultural pressures and wrong attitudes toward it,’ (Maslow ,1968).
Even though Maslow’s hierarchy is popular however he had little evidence to show this theory, this theory it had been based on his own private thoughts about motivation towards personal actualization. Rogers(1902-1987)had an alternative solution explanation to self actualization he referred to as it the fully performing person-"The organism provides one basic inclination and striving – to actualize, maintain, and improve the experiencing organism" (Rogers, 1951). He believed that a fully functioning person is an individual who has already been or on theory method to getting self actualized- this arises when a person best self(who they wish to be) is normally congruent with their genuine behaviour (self-photo). He believed that everyone could attain their goals, wishes and wishes in life so when the person did so, self – actualization takes place. Rogers (1961) says that not really everyone can self-actualize and the persons that do reach compared to that are called totally functioning person.- the individual is touching her and now and the individuals encounters and feelings are continuously growing and changing "Such a person encounters in today’s, with immediacy. The guy can live in his thoughts and reactions of the moment. He is certainly not bound by the framework of his previous learning’s, but they are a present resource for him in so far as they relate to the knowledge of the moment. He lives openly, subjectively, in an existential confrontation of the moment in lifestyle," Rogers (1962) article).
In amount 2 Rogers identified five charteristics of the completely functioning person:
- Open to experience-both negative and positive feelings are accepted. Negative feelings aren’t cast away additionally worked through them.
- Existential living- avoids prejudging and preconceptions in scenarios. Being able to enjoy the current moment rather than always looking back in the past or forward to the future (living for the moment).
- Trust feelings-trusting their personal feelings and judgement rather than seeking for other people for direction. Trusting that their very own decisions will be the right one.
- Creativity-the ability to adjust, switch and seek new experiences. Risk taking rather than playing safe on a regular basis. Have imaginative thinking in the person’s life.
- Fulfilled life- the person is happy and content with life but still looking for new problems and experiences.
Rogers (1959) shows that people want to look and experience and behave in ways which are regular with their self-photo which reflect what we would like to end up like, ideal-self. The closer the self-image and suitable self are to one another.
The self concept https://testmyprep.com/lesson/lets-learn-how-to-write-a-summary-paper includes three components:
Self worth/or personal esteem- what the person think about ourselves. Rogers thought this developed in early childhood formed from conversation of the kid and parents
Self image-how the individual sees themselves
Ideal self-this is how the person wish to be .comprising goals and ambitions in lifestyle.
Rogers believed people have to be regarded by others positively , loved and respected. Positive regards is to do with how people see them in cultural interactions. There are two types unconditional positive regard and conditional confident regards. Rogers believed that all infants had a need to be psotively self-regarded
Unconditional confident regard-this is where in fact the parents accepts and loves the kid for who they will be. Individuals who can self-actulize will have received unconditional great regards from others, specifically parents.
Condtional positive- the kid behaves in ways where the parents approve of. The kid is not enjoyed for who they actually is only with techniques where their behaviour is based upon what they experience the father and mother consider correct. A person who constantly seeks for authorization from others is likely to have experienced conditional confident regards as a kid.
This is usually where Rogers and Maslow theories contrasted, Rogers thought that early childhood experiences are important for the person to achieve self actualization nevertheless Maslow didn’t take this under consideration and only focused primarily on achieving wants within the hierarchy.
The two theories possess a similar paths when it comes to individuals following their on way to accomplish self actualization and extra basic needs regarding survival needs need to be satisfied first before a person might achieve self actualization. They both agree on being accepted can be more influential than the need for self-actulization.
They both comparison in what they focus on after defining personal actualization. Maslow centered on understanding the features of a personal actlizaing individuals. Rogers looked at the characteristics but also considered the methods achieve self actualization as well as developing therapy to get over barriers that where restricting people from achieving their full potential. Maslow supported his theory by studying some people who he thought has reached their full potential such as for example Albert Einstein and Thomas Jefferson. He found that self actualized persons apperared to share similar charactestic traits.
Maslow estimated only 1 percent of people are motivated in becoming personal actualised (Larsen and Buss ,2008) nevertheless rogers believed that everyone is capable of becoming self actualized. The thing that will be stopping them has been fixated on circumstances of worthy of where in his remedy removes that from his customers so they can continue on the path to becoming self actualised.
Overall, between your two theories of self actualization it appears showing that rogers believes that people can aim to become self actualized however Maslow only thinks that a small percentage can strive to that level. Rogers primarly centered on therapy to greatly help individuals to greatly help reach fully pontential and Maslow agreed with this system. Suggesting that both theories are similar in conditions of their description and classification of self actualization- related chaterstics and characteristics. No research findings have advised what theory is more valid than the other because they are both have an identical regarding their theoretical basis towards personal actualization. Although it suggestsd that Rogers tips are extra valid as his reaserch contains therapy of clients, as Maslows had little evidence ot was bottom by himself personal thoughts.
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. London: Constable.
Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal romantic relationships as designed in the client-centered framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A study of a technology. Vol. 3: Formulations of the individual and the social context. NY: McGraw Hill.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Learning to be a person: A psychotherapists check out of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin.
Rogers, C. R., Stevens, B., Gendlin, E. T., Shlien, J. M., & Van Dusen, W. (1967). Person to person: The issue of being human: A fresh pattern in psychology. Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.